Chapter 9


A. Steep Turns1. What is a steep turn? (FAA-H-8083-3)Steep turns are those resulting from a degree of bank (more than approximately 45 degrees) at which overbanking tendency of an airplane overcomes stability, and the bank tends to increase unless pressure is applied to the aileron controls to prevent it. Maximum turning performance is attained and relatively high load factors are imposed.2. What is the desired bank angle in a steep turn? (FAA-S-8081-12B)A bank angle of at least 50° (+ / – 5°) is desired.

3. What is the recommended entry speed for a steep turn? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

Establish the manufacturer’s recommended airspeed or if one is not stated, a safe airspeed not to exceed VA.

4. How do you maintain altitude in a steep turn? (FAA-H-8083-3)

To maintain altitude, as well as orientation, requires an awareness of the relative position of the nose, the horizon, the wings, and the amount of bank. If the altitude begins to increase, or decrease, relaxing or increasing the back-elevator pressure will be required as appropriate. This may also require a power adjustment to maintain the selected airspeed. A small increase or decrease of 1° to 3° of bank angle may be used to control small altitude deviations.

5. What are the altitude, airspeed, bank, and heading tolerance for a steep turn? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

Maintain the entry altitude, +/- 100 feet (30 meters), airspeed, +/-10 knots, bank, +/-5°; and roll out on the entry heading, +/-10°.

B. Chandelles

1. What is a chandelle? (FAA-H-8083-3)

A “chandelle” is a maximum performance climbing turn beginning from approximately straight and level flight, and ending at the completion of 180° of turn in a wings-level, nose-high attitude at the minimum controllable airspeed.

2. In a chandelle, constant bank and changing pitch occur in what part of the maneuver? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

The first 90° of turn require a constant 30° of bank and a gradual and constant change in pitch attitude.

3. In a chandelle, constant pitch and changing bank occur in what part of the maneuver? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

The last 90° of turn requires a very gradual change in bank from 30° to 0° and a constant pitch attitude so as to arrive at minimum airspeed as the airplane is rolled out to a wings-level attitude.

4. What is the maximum amount of bank in the chandelle? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

30° of bank.

5. What should your speed be upon completion of the chandelle? (FAA-S-8081-12A)

You should begin a coordinated constant-rate rollout from the 90° point to the 180° point, +/-10° just above a stall airspeed, and maintaining that airspeed momentarily avoiding a stall.

6. At what two points will your wings be level in a chandelle? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

Immediately before entering the chandelle and upon rollout at the 180° point.

C. Lazy Eights

1. What is a lazy eight? (FAA-H-8083-3)

A lazy eight consist of two 180° turns, in opposite directions, while making a climb and a descent in a symmetrical pattern during each of the turns.

2. What is recommended, with reference to wind direction, when beginning a lazy-eight maneuver?

The maneuver should be entered into the wind to avoid drifting too far from the area originally cleared for the maneuver.

3. Where should the highest pitch attitude occur in a lazy eight? (FAA-H-8083-3)

At the 45° point the pitch attitude should be at a maximum and the angle of bank continuing to increase. Also, at the 45°point, the pitch attitude should start to decrease slowly toward the horizon at the 90° reference point.

4. Where should the lowest nose-down attitude occur in a lazy eight? (FAA-H-8083-3)

When the airplane has turned 135°, the nose should be at its lowest pitch attitude.

5. What are the altitude, airspeed and heading tolerances allowed when performing a lazy eight? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

You should achieve the following throughout the maneuver:
a. Approximately 30° bank at the steepest point.
b. Constant change of pitch and roll rate.
c. Altitude tolerance at 180° points, +/-100 feet (30 meters) from entry altitude.
d. Airspeed tolerance at the 180° point, +/-10° knots from entry airspeed.
e. Heading tolerance at the 180° point, +/-10°.
6. To summarize, describe the appropriate values to be obtained in a lazy eight at the entry, 45-, 90-, 135- and 180- degree points. (FAA-H-8083-3)

– Level flight
– Maneuvering or cruise speed (whichever is less) or manufacturer’s recommended speed

45° point
– Maximum pitch-up attitude
– Bank angle at 15°
90° point
– Bank angle approximately 30°
– Minimum airspeed
– Maximum altitude
– Level pitch attitude
135° point
– Maximum pitch-down attitude
– Bank approximately 15°
180° point
– Level flight
– Original heading (+/-10°)
– Entry airspeed (+/-10 knots)
– Entry altitude (+/-100 feet)

D. Eights-On-Pylons

1. What are eights-on-pylons? (FAA-H-8083-3)

Eights-on-pylons is a training maneuver that involves flying the airplane in circular paths, alternately left and right, in the form of a figure-8 around two selected points or pylons on the ground. No attempt is made to maintain a uniform distance from the pylon. Instead, the airplane is flown at such an altitude and airspeed that a line parallel to the airplane’s lateral axis and extending from the pilot’s eye appears to pivot on each of the pylons.

2. How do you determine pivotal altitude for eights-on-pylons? (FAA-H-8083-3)

An entry pivotal altitude value is initially calculated by using the ground speed entering the maneuver. Since the first turn is made into the wind, this will be the slowest ground speed. Use the formula:
If airspeed indicator is in MPH:
GS2 / 15 = PA
If airspeed indicator is in KNOTS:
GS2 / 11.3 = PA

3. Does the pivotal altitude change in eights-on-pylons? (FAA-H-8083-3)

Yes, the pivotal altitude is critical and will change with variations in ground speed. Since the headings throughout the turns continually vary from directly downwind to directly upwind, the ground speed will constantly change. This will result in the proper pivotal altitude varying slightly throughout the weight. Therefore, adjustment must be made for this by climbing and descending as necessary to hold the reference line or point on the pylons. This change in altitude will be dependent on how much the wind affects the ground speed.
Remember ……
Ground Speed goes UP, Pivotal Altitude goes UP.
Ground speed goes DOWN, Pivotal Altitude goes DOWN.

4. How far should one pylon be from the other pylon in eights-on-pylons? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

They should be of sufficient distance apart to permit straight and level flight between pylons.

5. Where is the highest pivotal altitude likely to occur in eights-on-pylons? (FAA-H-8083-3)

As the airplane turns downwind the ground speed increases; consequently the pivotal altitude is higher and the airplane must climb to hold the reference line on the pylon.

6. Where is the lowest pivotal altitude likely to occur in eights-on pylons? (FAA-H-8083-3)

As the airplane heads into the wind, the ground speed decreases; consequently the pivotal altitude is lower and the airplane must descend to hold the reference line on the pylon.

7. What action should you take if your wing reference point appears to move ahead of the pylon? Move behind the pylon? (FAA-H-8083-3)

If the reference line appears to move ahead of the pylon, the pilot should increase altitude. If the reference line appears to move behind the pylon, the pilot should decrease altitude. Varying rudder pressure to yaw the airplane and force the wing and reference line forward or backward to the pylon is a dangerous technique and must not be attempted.

E. Power-Off 180° Accuracy Approach and Landing

1. What is a power-off 180° accuracy approach and landing? (FAA-H-8083-3)

Power-off accuracy approaches and landings are made by gliding, with the engine idling, from a specific point on downwind to touchdown beyond and within 200 feet of a designated line or mark on the runway.

2. State the objective of learning a power-off 180° accuracy approach and landing. (FAA-H-8083-3)

Its objective is to further develop judgment in estimating distances and glide ratios, in that the airplane is flown without power from a higher altitude and through a 90° turn to reach the base-leg position at a proper altitude for executing the 90° approach.

3. What are the standards expected of a student when executing this type of approach and landing? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

The student must:
a. Exhibit knowledge of the elements related to a power-off 180° accuracy approach and landing.
b. Consider the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and selects an appropriate touchdown point.
c. Position airplane on downwind leg, parallel to landing runway, and not more than 1,000 feet AGL.
d. Abeam the specified touchdown point, close throttle and establish appropriate glide speed.
e. Complete final airplane configuration.
f. Touchdown in a normal landing attitude, at or within 200 feet (60 meters) beyond the specified touchdown point.
g. Complete the appropriate checklist.
F. Steep Spirals

1. What is a steep spiral? (FAA-H-8083-3)

A steep spiral is nothing more than a constant gliding turn, during which a constant radius around a point on the ground is maintained similar to the maneuver “turns around a point”. The radius should be such that the steepest bank will not exceed 60°.

2. What is the objective of a steep spiral? (FAA-H-8083-3)

The objective of this maneuver is to improve pilot techniques for airspeed control, wind drift control, planning, orientation, and division of attention. The steep spiral is not only a valuable flight training maneuver, but has practical application by providing a procedure for dissipating altitude while remaining over a selected sport in preparation for landing, especially for emergency forced landings.

3. What standards must you maintain when executing a steep spiral? (FAA-S-8081-12B)

Start at an altitude that will allow a series of three 360°- turns. Maintain the specified airspeed +/- knots, roll out toward object or specified heading +/-10°, and do not exceed 60° of bank while applying wind drift correction to track a constant radius circle around a defined reference point.