Chapter 7


A. Aeronautical Decision Making

1. Define aeronautical decision making (ADM) (FAA-H-8083-9)

ADM is the systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

2. During flight, decisions must be made regarding events that involve interactions between the four risk elements. What are they? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Pilot in command – the aircraft – the environment – the operation

3. The DECIDE model for decision making involves which elements? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Detect a change needing attention.
Estimate the need to counter or react to change.
Choose the most desirable outcome for the flight.
Identify actions to successfully control the change.
Do something to adapt to the change.
Evaluate the effect of the action countering the change.

4. What are the major factors affecting judgment and decision making? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Stress – health – attitude – experience

5. Name the five hazardous attitudes that negatively impact a pilot’s judgment and ability to make competent decisions and their antidotes. (FAA-H-8083-9)
Attitudes Antidotes
Anti-authority Follow the rules, they are usually right.
Impulsivity Think first – not so fast.
Invulnerability It could happen to me.
Macho Taking chances is foolish.
Resignation I can make a difference, I am not helpless.

B. Crew Resource Management

1. What does crew resource management (CRM) refer to? (FAA-H-8083-9)
CRM is the application of team management concepts in the flight deck environment. It was initially known as “cockpit resource management”, but as CRM programs evolved to include cabin crews, maintenance personnel, and others, it became “crew resource management”. This includes single pilots, as in most general aviation aircraft. Pilots of small aircraft, as well as crews of larger aircraft. Pilots of small aircraft, as well as crews of larger aircraft, must make effective use of all available resources; human resources, hardware, and information.

2. Which groups routinely working with the cockpit crew, may also be viewed as effective components of CRM and the decision making process in the cockpit? (FAA-H-8083-9)

All groups routinely working with the cockpit crew who are involved in decisions required to operate a flight safely. These groups include, but are not limited to pilots, dispatchers, cabin crew members, maintenance personnel, and air traffic controllers. CRM is one way of addressing the challenge of optimizing the human/machine interface and accompanying interpersonal activities.

3. Discuss the importance of understanding the concept of positive exchange o flight controls, as it relates to flight training. (FAA-H-8083-9)

During flight training, there must always be a clear understanding between students and flight instructors of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to flight, a briefing should be conducted that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight controls. A positive three-step process in the exchange of flight controls between pilots is a proven procedure and one that is strongly recommended.

4. Describe the three-step process used for the positive exchange of flight controls. (FAA-H-8083-9)

During this procedure, a visual check is recommended to see that the other person actually has the flight controls. When returning the controls to the instructor, the student should follow the same procedure the instructor used when giving control to the student. The student should stay on the controls and keep flying the aircraft until the instructor says, “I have the flight controls”. There should never be any doubt as to who is flying the aircraft.
• When the flight instructor wishes the student to take control of the aircraft, the instructor says to the student: “u have the flight controls”.
• The student acknowledges immediately by saying: “I have the flight controls”.
• The flight instructor again says: “You have the flight controls”.

C. Situational Awareness

1. What is situational awareness? (FAA-H-8083-9)

It is the accurate perception and understanding of all the factors and conditions within the four fundamental risk elements affecting safety before, during, and after the flight.

2. Situational awareness takes into consideration which four elements? (FAA-H-8083-9)

The four elements to be taken into consideration with situational awareness are:

Pilot – Aircraft – Environment – Type of Operation – and their interaction with each other.

3. What are some of the elements, both inside and outside the aircraft that a pilot must consider in order to maintain situational awareness? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Inside aircraft – status of aircraft systems, pilots, and passengers.
Outside aircraft – environmental conditions of the flight, spatial orientation of the aircraft, relationship to surrounding terrain, traffic, weather and airspace.

4. What are some of the obstacles to maintaining situational awareness? (FAA-H-8083-9)

Fatigue, stress, and work overload can cause the pilot to fixate on a single perceived important item rather than maintaining an overall awareness of the flight situation. A contributing factor in many accidents is a distraction, which diverts the pilot’s attention from monitoring the instruments or scanning outside the aircraft. Many cockpit distractions begin as a minor problem, such as a gauge that is not reading correctly, but result in accidents as the pilot diverts attention to the perceived problem and neglects to properly control the aircraft.

5. What are “operational pitfalls”? (FAA-H-8083-9)

There are a number of classic behavioral traps into which pilots have been known to fall. Pilots, particularly those with considerable experience, as a rule always try to complete a flight as planned, please passengers, meet schedules, and generally demonstrate that they have the “right stuff”. The basic drive to demonstrate the right stuff can have an adverse effect on safety, and can impose an unrealistic assessment of piloting skills under stressful conditions. These tendencies ultimately may bring about practices that are dangerous and often illegal, and may lead to a mishap.

6. What are some examples of operational pitfalls that pilots have been known to experience? (FAA-H-8083-9)

a. Peer pressure
b. Mindset
c. Get-There-It is
d. Duck-under syndrome/Descent below minimums
e. Scud running
f. Continuing visual flight rules (VFR)into instrument conditions
g. Getting behind the aircraft
h. Loss of positional or situational awareness
i. Operating without adequate fuel reserves
j. Descent below the minimum en route altitude
k. Flying outside the envelope
l. Neglect of flight planning, preflight inspections, and checklists

D. Use of Checklists

1. Why are pilots encouraged to use checklists? (FAA-H-8083-3)

Checklists provide a logical and standardized method to operate a particular make and model airplane. Following a checklist reinforces the use of proper procedures throughout all major phases of flight operations.

2. What are the two primary methods for using checklists?

a. Read and Do: This is when the pilot picks up a checklist, refers to an item, and sets the condition. The items for any particular phase of flight would all be accomplished before the checklist is set aside.
b. Do and Verify : Set the condition of the items for a particular phase of operation from memory or flow pattern, then use the checklist and read to verify that the appropriate condition for each item in that phase has been set. It is not wise for a pilot to become so reliant upon a flow pattern that he or she fails to verify with a checklist. Checking important items solely from memory is not an acceptable substitute for checklists.

3. What are some examples of checklists a pilot will use in the course of a flight? (FAA-H-8083-3)

a. Preflight Inspection
b. Before Engine Starting
c. Use of External Power
d. Engine Starting
e. Before Taxiing
f. Before Takeoff
g. Climb
h. Cruise
i. Descent
j. Before Landing
k. Balked Landing
l. After-landing
m. Shutdown
n. Post flight / ELT Check